Rate of change of strain as a function of stress in a specimen subjected to shear or torsion loading. It is the modulus of elasticity determined in a torsion test. Alternate terms are modulus of elasticity in torsion and modulus of elasticity in shear. Apparent modulus of rigidity is a measure of the stiffness of plastics measured in a torsion test (ASTM D-1043). It is "apparent" because the specimen may be deflected past its proportional limit and the value calculated may not represent the true modulus of elasticity within the elastic limit of the material.